One frigid morning last month, April Turner sidled up to the parapet of a 21-story apartment building on the Upper West Side, climbed over the edge and dangled herself 188 feet above the pavement.

  Suspended by ropes like the ones used by rock climbers, she slid past balcony ledges and window frames, careful not to lock eyes with dumbstruck residents. With a tiny mallet and a point-and-shoot camera, she cataloged cracks and blemishes on the building’s facade, pausing at each floor to feel around for fatal flaws.

  If pedestrians bothered to watch, they might have applauded as she touched down near a neighboring nail salon. Without fanfare, she detached her gear, walked back inside the co-op and took the elevator to the roof for another drop — to canvass another section of the postwar building’s dappled face.

  It’s all in a day’s work for a growing number of New York City’s building facade inspectors.

  The city requires that of the approximately 1 million buildings in New York City, those taller than six stories — more than 14,500 structures — have their facades inspected every five years, to ensure the safety of passers-by below. Rather than using bulky swing-stage scaffolds, like the ones for window washing, or hydraulic cranes that block traffic, an increasing number of design and engineering firms are training their staff to rappel down the side of skyscrapers in search of dangerous defects.

  Rope-access inspections can be less expensive, less time-consuming and less likely to provoke the ire of co-op and condo boards because they are less obtrusive than other means. In a city crowded with new towers, the inspections are expected to grow more popular — good news for thrill seekers hoping to scale the city’s terra-cotta canyons. Among them: A growing number of women, who have been historically underrepresented in these jobs.

  “My entire class was basically all females,” Ms. Turner, 29, said of her rope-access training in 2016, which was a first for her instructor. “There were two men, and one dropped out.”

  Ms. Turner is an assistant project manager for CANY, an architecture and engineering firm that specializes in building facades. She joined the firm in 2013 as a drafter, but her co-workers urged her to train for rope work after they learned she was an amateur boulderer.

  CANY began performing rope-access inspections in 2000 with four staff members, all of them men, said Stephen Lythe, the chief executive. The work also requires the assistance of rigging crews, who supervise the drops. Now, eight out of 15 of the firm’s rope-access technicians are women.

  Ms. Turner’s job mostly involves client meetings and paperwork, but as the late-February deadline for building owners to submit safety reports approached, the pace quickened to four rope-inspections in a week, when usually she does one a month. In all, she has performed about 40 on-rope inspections.

  Her favorite part of the job? “You get to see New York,” she said. “It’s a private viewing, almost.”

  In the relatively short history of facade inspections in New York City, industrial rope access, as it is known, is a recent addition. In 1980, the City Council enacted Local Law 10 in response to the death of Grace Gold, a Barnard student killed by falling masonry the previous year. The city mandated that all buildings taller than six stories undergo a “visual inspection,” which, critics said, could mean a cursory glance with binoculars from the ground.

  In 1998, the City Council passed the more rigorous Local Law 11 after a series of dangerous accidents, including one at a Madison Avenue office building where loose brick rained down on the street. Now known as the Building Facade Safety Program, the rules require a physical inspection of the street-facing elevations and a visual survey of the others.

  But accidents continue. Last year, a man in the SoHo neighborhood of Manhattan was struck and killed by a piece of a fire escape that fell seven stories.

  The bulk of these inspections are still performed on scaffolds or cranes, but that is changing for a number of reasons.

  “Rope access will find its place more and more with these new, complicated buildings,” said Howard L. Zimmerman, the founder of Howard L. Zimmerman Architects, which specializes in building exteriors. The firm performs about 500 to 600 facade-safety inspections every five years. In 2017, it began performing rope-access inspections, which now make up about 10 percent of all its inspections.

  The triangular Flatiron Building, which Mr. Zimmerman’s firm was hired to inspect in December, illustrates why. The firm used a team of five rappelers to examine the 22-story terra-cotta-and-limestone building in one day, for around ,000. A conventional inspection with scaffolds would have cost closer to 0,000 and taken weeks to complete, because of permitting issues and limited rigging space on the building, said Carolyn Caste, the firm’s director of facade compliance. (Ms. Caste, who has been with the firm since 2010, first rappelled off the side of a building last year.)

  As buildings are typically inspected every five years, the newest ones required to have their facades checked were built around 2014. Going forward, inspectors can expect more unusual buildings, with odd shapes and cantilevered boxes dictated by irregular lots and restrictive building codes. Not all jobs will be more cost-effective or faster with rope access, but many could benefit from the flexibility that ropes offer.

  Jeffrey S. Reich, a partner at Schwartz Sladkus Reich Greenberg Atlas LLP, a law firm that represents real estate clients, said the inspections can put neighboring building owners at odds. He represents clients in building-access negotiations about 30 times a year — three times as many as a decade ago — in instances where scaffolding might be hung for weeks or longer to comply with inspections. Unhappy residents in neighboring buildings argue that the scaffolds block views, blot out the sun and limit access to outdoor space. Rope inspections rarely take that long, because the rigging is more versatile and easier to install.

  But in spite of objections, the work is necessary. “It’s kind of frightful what you see on some of these buildings,” said David May, an architect and principal at Superstructures Engineers + Architects, which specializes in exterior restoration.

  In the prewar set, there are unstable parapets and spalling concrete. Midcentury buildings, with their cost-saving, hollow-cavity walls, might have rotting steel ties that could send bricks tumbling down. Sagging lintels — the support beams above windows — and cracked balconies can plague buildings of all ages. And, of course, there is the chronic fear of falling air-conditioners, shared by many New Yorkers.

  New glass towers also pose risks: “Spontaneous glass breakage,” for instance, is industry-speak for a manufacturing defect in which nickel contaminants in glass cause cracks or worse.

  Last year, 564 out of 3,305 buildings inspected, or 17 percent, were deemed unsafe, either because of an imminent safety hazard like loose brick or because of uncorrected issues from a previous inspection. The largest share of reports — 1,479, or 45 percent — was deemed conditionally safe, provided specified repairs were completed.

  There were 247 requests for rope-access work in 2018, up from 193 in 2015, according to the Department of Buildings. Those numbers include other rope work, including facade repairs, said Yegal Shamash, an assistant commissioner, who noted that he has seen a steady rise in rope-access inspections over the last 10 years.

  “I had no idea that kind of niche in the architecture world existed,” said Amy DeLuca, 33, a project manager with CANY. “I ended up seeing a promotional photo of someone rappelling” down the side of a building, she added, “and I said, ‘I want to do that.’” She joined the firm eight years ago, and became its first female rope-access inspector in 2015.

  Xsusha Flandro, 37, an architectural conservator with the firm, and a trained rope-access technician, has swung from about 20 buildings in New York. And she has noticed a pattern.

  “When I’m on a regular construction site, I’m usually the only female,” she said. But on the ropes, there are far more women.

  Why? “I’ve asked this question of them,” she said, “and I kind of agree — women are less afraid of heights.”

  The number of women in rope access has grown industrywide, said Jody Bird, the executive director of the Society of Professional Rope Access Technicians, one of the largest certification groups.

  Level-one certification does not require past climbing experience, but it typically involves a four-day training course, as well as written and field tests. Subsequent levels require 500 hours of rope time and more advanced testing.

  The organization has 8,500 to 9,000 certified technicians in the oil rig, wind turbine and building restoration industries, among others. While it does not track the kind of work its technicians do, Ms. Bird said she has seen an increase in the number of women overall. Last year, for the first time since the group’s founding in 1996, it appointed two women as committee chairs, she said.

  Yet even as demand grows for this kind of work, there are only 100 or so people performing rope-access facade inspections in New York, said Jarrett Huddleston, the principal at CANY. And they’re often misunderstood.

  “I was out on the side of buildings when all of my friends were drawing details of bathroom fixtures,” said Ms. Caste, a registered architect whose classmates have more conventional career paths.

  “My mom doesn’t want to know anymore,” said Ms. DeLuca, who spares her the details.

  One example: She regularly “face plants” on the side of glassy towers, because they lack grip. Also: rappelling on taller buildings is a serious ab workout, because the ropes are longer and heavier.

  And awkward interactions with onlookers are a rite of passage. “One of my co-workers caught someone coming out of the shower, and it was full-frontal,” Ms. DeLuca said. On Halloween, a hand emerged from an office window to give her a piece of candy.

  And it’s not uncommon for police and firefighters to arrive at an inspection, because neighbors have called in reports of people hanging from the side of a building, Ms. Caste said.

  The recent building boom should keep inspectors busy. Between 2020 and 2025, some 1,500 additional buildings will be required to have inspections, said Jill Hrubecky, an executive engineer with the Department of Buildings. While some in the industry are pushing for the use of unmanned drones — heavily restricted, in most cases, in New York — this is one of the few fields where robots won’t soon prevail. “Nothing is going to replace a hands-on inspection,” she said.

  The new towers may be a boon to the rope-access inspectors, but these taller, sleeker structures, skinned in glass and metal, haven’t earned many fans among them.

  “Anything pre-1940s is my cup of tea,” said Ms. Flandro, who has a background in ceramics and sculpture. She was chosen to climb the ropes for CANY in large part because of her conservator skills.

  “We get to touch these pieces of terra cotta that no one has touched in a hundred years,” said Ms. DeLuca, who considers it one of the perks of the job. But familiarity can also breed contempt.

  “In architecture school, it’s always new, new, new. You’re supposed to like everything modern,” she said. After some face time with the city’s new glassy skyline, she has changed her stance: “It doesn’t look great close up.”

  For weekly email updates on residential real estate news, sign up here. Follow us on Twitter: @nytrealestate.



  www.qq88888.com【腾】【海】【碧】【影】【鹿】【对】【于】【时】【序】【控】【制】【能】【力】【异】【常】【强】【悍】。 【真】【雷】【锦】【程】【这】【一】【刀】【足】【有】1【个】【亿】【的】【爆】【发】【能】【力】。 【结】【果】【他】【的】【这】【一】【次】【攻】【击】【就】【像】【是】【玩】【笑】【一】【样】。 【这】【就】【是】【高】【阶】【武】【者】【在】【面】【对】【腾】【海】【碧】【影】【鹿】【时】【候】【会】【有】【的】【困】【扰】。 【不】【是】【因】【为】【他】【们】【不】【够】【的】【强】【悍】,【而】【是】【因】【为】【时】【序】【早】【就】【和】【身】【躯】【融】【为】【一】【体】。 【要】【说】【完】【全】【不】【依】【赖】【时】【序】【来】【攻】【击】,【仅】【仅】【是】【依】【靠】【灵】【气】。

【萧】【洋】【试】【图】【躲】【避】【赤】【羽】【透】【的】【中】【二】【之】【指】。 【赤】【羽】【透】【那】【话】【语】【声】【明】【明】【喘】【得】【和】【快】【挂】【了】【一】【般】,【但】【指】【人】【的】【手】【指】【却】【极】【为】【平】【稳】,【萧】【洋】【怎】【么】【闪】【都】【躲】【不】【掉】。 【云】【萝】【挂】【在】【萧】【洋】【身】【上】【随】【萧】【洋】【移】【动】【微】【摆】,【但】【冰】【炎】【圣】【使】【威】【严】【依】【旧】,“【暗】【之】【烈】【火】【使】,【放】【弃】【吧】,【降】【服】【于】【吾】【等】,【吾】【等】【天】【才】【结】【社】【放】【汝】【一】【条】【生】【路】……” 【在】【萧】【洋】【快】【要】【忍】【不】【住】【冲】【上】【干】【掉】【这】【只】【中】【二】【红】【毛】

【一】【个】【时】【辰】,【说】【长】【不】【长】,【说】【短】【不】【短】。 【看】【着】【刘】【表】【军】【如】【潮】【水】【一】【般】【再】【次】【涌】【来】,【曹】【仁】【知】【道】,【这】【次】【恐】【怕】【是】【真】【的】【守】【不】【住】【了】。 【广】【陵】【城】【已】【是】【生】【死】【一】【线】,【幽】【州】【曹】【操】【与】【袁】【绍】【也】【到】【了】【决】【战】【时】【刻】。 【与】【广】【陵】【城】【的】【狂】【风】【暴】【雨】【不】【同】,【自】【曹】【操】【引】【兵】【北】【上】【以】【来】,【曹】【袁】【之】【间】【并】【没】【有】【爆】【发】【大】【规】【模】【的】【决】【战】。 【见】【状】,【一】【开】【始】【袁】【绍】【并】【不】【着】【急】,【甚】【至】【还】【兵】【分】【两】

  【宋】【暖】【晴】【早】【上】【醒】【来】【的】【时】【候】【去】【厕】【所】【看】【了】【一】【眼】【自】【己】【依】【旧】【还】【没】【有】【来】【大】【姨】【妈】,【心】【里】【更】【慌】【了】。 【该】【死】【的】,【不】【会】【是】【怀】【孕】【了】【吗】? “【怎】【么】【了】【呢】?”【帝】【昊】【天】【看】【得】【出】【来】【宋】【暖】【晴】【有】【些】【不】【一】【样】【了】,【整】【个】【人】【心】【神】【不】【宁】【一】【副】【慌】【张】【害】【怕】【的】【样】【子】,【关】【心】【的】【问】:“【怎】【么】【了】【呢】?” “【我】……【帝】【昊】【天】,【你】【说】……【我】【是】【不】【是】【怀】【孕】【了】,【我】……【我】【大】【姨】【妈】【都】【已】【经】【迟】www.qq88888.com“【我】【没】【想】【到】【你】【会】【来】【这】【里】,【感】【觉】【怎】【么】,【这】【里】【应】【该】【不】【比】【那】【边】【差】【吧】。”【郭】【浩】【廷】【看】【着】【苏】【时】【光】【总】【是】【东】【张】【西】【望】【的】【样】【子】,【看】【起】【来】【好】【像】【对】【什】【么】【都】【充】【满】【了】【好】【奇】【心】。 【韩】【柠】【萌】【也】【不】【知】【道】【她】【从】【刚】【才】【就】【一】【直】【在】【看】【些】【什】【么】。 “【你】【在】【找】【什】【么】?”**【看】【着】【她】【疑】【问】。 【从】【刚】【才】【开】【始】【就】【一】【直】【在】【找】【什】【么】,【估】【计】【连】【别】【人】【说】【什】【么】【她】【都】【没】【有】【听】【见】。 【苏】【微】【微】

  【秦】【枫】【并】【没】【有】【因】【为】【翁】【南】【一】【的】【话】,【就】【对】【他】【产】【生】【什】【么】【反】【感】。【这】【位】【高】【高】【瘦】【瘦】【的】【圣】【火】【盟】【青】【年】【长】【老】,【说】【话】【一】【直】【中】【正】【持】【重】,【不】【偏】【不】【倚】。【他】【说】【要】【让】【不】【弱】【于】【詹】【化】【的】【高】【手】【来】【操】【控】【秋】【水】【剑】,【本】【身】【就】【是】【秉】【持】【着】【公】【正】【的】【心】【态】。【毕】【竟】,【秦】【枫】【的】【逆】【天】【战】【力】【摆】【在】【那】【里】,【让】【风】【河】【去】【试】【剑】,【对】【秋】【水】【剑】【来】【说】【并】【不】【公】【平】。 【秦】【枫】【和】【风】【河】,【比】【的】【不】【是】【武】【道】【修】【为】,【而】【是】【魂】

  【华】【昊】【穹】【带】【着】【叶】【尘】【来】【到】【一】【片】【宽】【阔】【的】【石】【林】【之】【地】,【到】【处】【都】【是】【巨】【大】【的】【石】【块】,【围】【成】【一】【片】,【堆】【积】【成】【山】,【而】【在】【那】【片】【空】【地】【之】【上】,【摆】【放】【着】【一】【些】【石】【桌】【石】【椅】。 【不】【过】【让】【叶】【尘】【感】【觉】【奇】【怪】【的】【是】,【这】【些】【石】【桌】【石】【椅】【上】,【都】【是】【蒙】【着】【一】【层】【厚】【厚】【的】【灰】【尘】,【仿】【佛】【是】【许】【久】【没】【有】【人】【来】【过】【此】【地】。 “【我】【知】【道】【你】【有】【很】【多】【疑】【惑】,【随】【我】【进】【入】【山】【洞】【之】【后】,【你】【自】【然】【就】【会】【得】【到】【回】【答】。

  【苏】【倩】【冷】【漠】【地】【盯】【着】【苏】【桓】【真】【魂】。 【虽】【然】【直】【到】【现】【在】,【苏】【倩】【依】【旧】【没】【有】【感】【受】【到】【苏】【桓】【真】【魂】【有】【任】【何】【的】【杀】【意】,【但】【事】【情】【发】【展】【到】【这】【个】【地】【步】【是】【她】【没】【有】【想】【到】【的】。 “【我】【认】【为】【你】【应】【该】【解】【释】【解】【释】。” 【苏】【倩】【收】【手】,【冷】【声】【道】。 【周】【围】【的】【尸】【体】【发】【出】【急】【促】【的】“【科】【科】”【似】【的】【嘶】【吼】,【石】【椅】【上】【的】【帝】【尸】【胸】【中】【的】“【烈】【火】”【熊】【熊】【燃】【烧】。 【突】【然】,【石】【椅】【上】【的】【帝】【尸】【睁】【开】



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